PREV UP NEXT Using and Porting GNU CC

16.7.5: Passing Arguments in Registers

This section describes the macros which let you control how various types of arguments are passed in registers or how they are arranged in the stack.

FUNCTION_ARG (cum, mode, type, named)
A C expression that controls whether a function argument is passed in a register, and which register.

The arguments are cum, which summarizes all the previous arguments; mode, the machine mode of the argument; type, the data type of the argument as a tree node or 0 if that is not known (which happens for C support library functions); and named, which is 1 for an ordinary argument and 0 for nameless arguments that correspond to `...' in the called function's prototype.

The value of the expression should either be a reg RTX for the hard register in which to pass the argument, or zero to pass the argument on the stack.

For machines like the Vax and 68000, where normally all arguments are pushed, zero suffices as a definition.

The usual way to make the ANSI library `stdarg.h' work on a machine where some arguments are usually passed in registers, is to cause nameless arguments to be passed on the stack instead. This is done by making FUNCTION_ARG return 0 whenever named is 0.

You may use the macro MUST_PASS_IN_STACK (mode, type) in the definition of this macro to determine if this argument is of a type that must be passed in the stack. If REG_PARM_STACK_SPACE is not defined and FUNCTION_ARG returns non-zero for such an argument, the compiler will abort. If REG_PARM_STACK_SPACE is defined, the argument will be computed in the stack and then loaded into a register.

FUNCTION_INCOMING_ARG (cum, mode, type, named)
Define this macro if the target machine has ``register windows'', so that the register in which a function sees an arguments is not necessarily the same as the one in which the caller passed the argument.

For such machines, FUNCTION_ARG computes the register in which the caller passes the value, and FUNCTION_INCOMING_ARG should be defined in a similar fashion to tell the function being called where the arguments will arrive.

If FUNCTION_INCOMING_ARG is not defined, FUNCTION_ARG serves both purposes.

FUNCTION_ARG_PARTIAL_NREGS (cum, mode, type, named)
A C expression for the number of words, at the beginning of an argument, must be put in registers. The value must be zero for arguments that are passed entirely in registers or that are entirely pushed on the stack.

On some machines, certain arguments must be passed partially in registers and partially in memory. On these machines, typically the first n words of arguments are passed in registers, and the rest on the stack. If a multi-word argument (a double or a structure) crosses that boundary, its first few words must be passed in registers and the rest must be pushed. This macro tells the compiler when this occurs, and how many of the words should go in registers.

FUNCTION_ARG for these arguments should return the first register to be used by the caller for this argument; likewise FUNCTION_INCOMING_ARG, for the called function.

FUNCTION_ARG_PASS_BY_REFERENCE (cum, mode, type, named)
A C expression that indicates when an argument must be passed by reference. If nonzero for an argument, a copy of that argument is made in memory and a pointer to the argument is passed instead of the argument itself. The pointer is passed in whatever way is appropriate for passing a pointer to that type.

On machines where REG_PARM_STACK_SPACE is not defined, a suitable definition of this macro might be

FUNCTION_ARG_CALLEE_COPIES (cum, mode, type, named)
If defined, a C expression that indicates when it is the called function's responsibility to make a copy of arguments passed by invisible reference. Normally, the caller makes a copy and passes the address of the copy to the routine being called. When FUNCTION_ARG_CALLEE_COPIES is defined and is nonzero, the caller does not make a copy. Instead, it passes a pointer to the ``live'' value. The called function must not modify this value. If it can be determined that the value won't be modified, it need not make a copy; otherwise a copy must be made.
A C type for declaring a variable that is used as the first argument of FUNCTION_ARG and other related values. For some target machines, the type int suffices and can hold the number of bytes of argument so far.

There is no need to record in CUMULATIVE_ARGS anything about the arguments that have been passed on the stack. The compiler has other variables to keep track of that. For target machines on which all arguments are passed on the stack, there is no need to store anything in CUMULATIVE_ARGS; however, the data structure must exist and should not be empty, so use int.

INIT_CUMULATIVE_ARGS (cum, fntype, libname)
A C statement (sans semicolon) for initializing the variable cum for the state at the beginning of the argument list. The variable has type CUMULATIVE_ARGS. The value of fntype is the tree node for the data type of the function which will receive the args, or 0 if the args are to a compiler support library function.

When processing a call to a compiler support library function, libname identifies which one. It is a symbol_ref rtx which contains the name of the function, as a string. libname is 0 when an ordinary C function call is being processed. Thus, each time this macro is called, either libname or fntype is nonzero, but never both of them at once.

INIT_CUMULATIVE_INCOMING_ARGS (cum, fntype, libname)
Like INIT_CUMULATIVE_ARGS but overrides it for the purposes of finding the arguments for the function being compiled. If this macro is undefined, INIT_CUMULATIVE_ARGS is used instead.

The value passed for libname is always 0, since library routines with special calling conventions are never compiled with GNU CC. The argument libname exists for symmetry with INIT_CUMULATIVE_ARGS.

FUNCTION_ARG_ADVANCE (cum, mode, type, named)
A C statement (sans semicolon) to update the summarizer variable cum to advance past an argument in the argument list. The values mode, type and named describe that argument. Once this is done, the variable cum is suitable for analyzing the following argument with FUNCTION_ARG, etc.

This macro need not do anything if the argument in question was passed on the stack. The compiler knows how to track the amount of stack space used for arguments without any special help.

If defined, a C expression which determines whether, and in which direction, to pad out an argument with extra space. The value should be of type enum direction: either upward to pad above the argument, downward to pad below, or none to inhibit padding.

The amount of padding is always just enough to reach the next multiple of FUNCTION_ARG_BOUNDARY; this macro does not control it.

This macro has a default definition which is right for most systems. For little-endian machines, the default is to pad upward. For big-endian machines, the default is to pad downward for an argument of constant size shorter than an int, and upward otherwise.

If defined, a C expression that gives the alignment boundary, in bits, of an argument with the specified mode and type. If it is not defined, PARM_BOUNDARY is used for all arguments.
A C expression that is nonzero if regno is the number of a hard register in which function arguments are sometimes passed. This does not include implicit arguments such as the static chain and the structure-value address. On many machines, no registers can be used for this purpose since all function arguments are pushed on the stack.